The revival fluid is a form of nital, which is an industrial etching solution and more corrosive than nitric acid alone. Here, nital is used to trigger depetrification by corroding the outer stone layer. Pre-petrification, it was normally made from nitric acid and an alcohol, usually methanol, ethanol or methylated spirits. Senku's first version used rare naturally occuring nitric acid from the appropriately named cave of miracles, requiring only filtering and mixing in the proper ratio with ethanol distilled from wild grape wine.
After the cave of miracles was destroyed by Homura as part of a plan by Hyoga to take over the stone world, other sources of nitric acid had to be found, also to meet the demand of the massive undertaking that is reviving all of humanity. The first replacement for the cave if miracles was the Ostwald process, carried out in a small setup and relying on a platinum catalyst, the source material for which was found inside the Soyuz capsule at treasure island; It was painstakingly collected and deposited there by Byakuya thousands of years prior.
A more industrial process that allowed to produce bigger quantities of acid was starting from the ammonia made by the Haber-Bosch plant previously constructed by the americans. Sources of alcohol that were used have been distilled from grape wine, corn, and jabuticaba.
The completed revival fluid is a compound of nitric acid and alcohol created by mixing nitric acid with as close to pure alcohol (96%) as possible. The ratio is 30% nitric acid to 70% alcohol and the reaction won't occur unless it's perfect.
The revival fluid is used by pouring an amount of it onto the petrified stone, which then triggers a chain reaction across the stone, undoing the petrification. This can be done on either a separated body part or a whole body, though the effect will end once it's traveled across all connected stone parts. Occasionally, stone pieces may remain on the body which can then be removed by pouring revival fluid onto that specific part. This also heals the surrounding area.
The time taken for the fluid to begin the depetrification process is proportional to the amount of weathering the stone has endured, such that things that have been petrified for thousands of years may take several seconds to begin cracking. This is presumably because it takes longer to corrode through the weathered outer layer. The volume of fluid need may also be proportional to the size of the body.
The revival fluid also has the ability to stop the petrification in its tracks. Thus, if a body part is submerged in the revival fluid while the rest is becoming petrified, the submerged portion will not turn to stone and likely separate and fall off without depetrifying the rest. Additionally, bathing in revival fluid would probably protect the person from the beam, but doing so would kill them.
After Taiju came across the Cave of Miracles, Senku explains his logic on how the petrification works. Senku concludes that the nitric acid from the bat guano in the cave helped free both himself and Taiju from petrification. However Senku notes that just pouring nitric acid on a statue doesn't undo the petrification. He comments that he wants to try using nital (a stronger corrosive agent) instead, but needs alcohol to do it. Several months go by while they collect more nitric acid and distill more alcohol, and during the winter they finally succeed in reverting a swallow back to normal.
Senku hides the revival fluid recipe from Tsukasa in case things get out of hand, but Taiju immediately tells Tsukasa about the cave and the "miracle fluid" found within. It then becomes a race to complete the fluid and revive Yuzuriha before Tsukasa comes back to the cave. Ultimately, Senku is forced to give up the cave and formula to Tsukasa to save Yuzuriha's life. Tsukasa then returns to Roppongi begin building the Tsukasa Empire using the revival fluid.
The Kingdom of Science and the Empire of Might wage war over the Cave of Miracles, the only known source of the nitric acid. After Senku revives Tsukasa's sister Mirai, Hyoga has Homura destroy the cave, thereby preventing either side from reviving anyone else. At some point before its destruction, Minami takes some revival fluid and keeps it hidden in her hairband.
The Kingdom of Science obtain platinum from the Soyuz capsule left by the astronauts. With that, Senku was able to build a device to turn ammonia, sodium hydroxide and shells into nitric acid and revive the Perseus crew who were petrified.
Using the formula, the Kingdom of Science revived the people of Treasure Island. This sight amazed Matsukaze who wished the people of his time knew of this. Soyuz revealed he memorized the formula and planned to revive all the statues on Treasure Island.
The American Colony led by Dr. Xeno never discovered the revival formula on their own, instead reviving via staying conscious. They wanted to know how the Kingdom of Science managed to revive so many people. The Kingdom refused to divulge it because it would leave the enemy with no reason to keep them alive as well as realize that they were sitting on a nigh-infinite amount of the stuff.
The Kingdom of Science revive Joel with the formula.
As a last resort against Stanley, Senku planned to petrify the world once again and produced several bottles of the formula, so that his allies could avoid being petrified for millennia. Xeno and his followers attempted to procure the bottles for themselves but failed, due to Suika getting them to Senku. 
Suika collects her petrified allies, while continuing to fend for herself. Soon enough, she finds a paper holding instructions for the Revival Fluid and starts gathering supplies. She manages to gain the ingredients needed from bird poop, her own poop, fermented fruit, and scallop shells, although it takes several years to fully come together.
Upon reviving, Senku states that there is another method to make the Revival Fluid quicker. Suika is in awe when Senku is able to make some more nitric acid in just a day thanks to the Ostwald process. Sixteen days later, the pair make sixteen doses of revival fluid for their allies.
After half a year, Kingdom of Science use the formula to revive many residents in South America before constructing Superalloy City.
- The weaker nitric acid solution only seems to work if the statue is still conscious and actively thinking, and only after a long time.
- Mixing nitric acid with ethanol has the potential to be explosive if the concentration of nitric acid reaches over 10% (by weight). This would mean that the 30%-70% mixture found by Senku would be highly explosive and probably spontaneously combust upon being prepared. A likely explanation for why this does not happen is that the nitric acid from the cave of miracles is dilute.
|Lists||Flora, Fauna and Fungi • Inventions and Discoveries • Roadmap Diagrams|
|Vehicles||Perseus • Mobile Lab|
|Chemicals||Calcium Carbonate • Sulfurina|
|Inventions||Dragos • Petrification Weapon • Ramen • Revival Fluid|